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Independent Third-Party Testing

The TADD® Containment System has undergone thousands of rounds of testing by independent third-parties. We are working hard to get approval for distribution on all of the test reports. In the meantime, we have posted here the reports approved for public distribution. 



Analysis of the Cross-Contamination of Explosive Canine Training Aids During Manufacturing and Storage

by Kymeri Davis andJohn V. Goodpaster



Coming soon!



Structure of dense plumes from a finite-height cylinder in laminar crossflow

by Anna K. Pauls, Lars T. Larson, Aaron C. True, and

John P. Crimaldi


The Training Aid Delivery Device (TADD) is a cylindrical vessel designed to securely store hazardous substances while permitting their odors, which may be active or passive scalar quantities, to permeate the surrounding air; the device is commonly used for canine odor detection training. However, the structures of scalar plumes emanating from the cylinder are unknown, particularly with variations in ambient flow speed and odor properties. In this study, we performed numerical simulations of flow and scalar fields around the cylinder, for three laminar crossflow velocities and three odor densities. The flow field around the cylinder is characterized by a near-bed horseshoe vortex and a downwash-driven arch vortex formed in the wake. These vortices confine most of the odor downstream of the cylinder resulting in a persistent bimodal plume structure with symmetrical concentration peaks off of the centerline. Experimental concentration profiles measured with a photoionization detector (PID) in a low-speed wind tunnel confirmed the steadiness and main structural features of the simulated plumes. Increasing crossflow velocity decreases the transverse width of the plume, while increasing odorant density yields local body forces that enhance the horseshoe vortex and modify the plume structure. These modifications include increased transverse spread and strengthened bimodal peaks of the plume. This study advances understanding of dense plume dispersal patterns in the wake of finite-height cylinders in laminar crossflow.



Characterization of an odor permeable membrane device for the storage of explosives and use as canine training aids

by Kymeri Davis, Madison Reavis, John V. Goodpaster


The storage and use of explosives is regulated at the state and federal level, with a particular focus on physical security and rigorous accounting of the explosive inventory. For those working with explosives for the training and testing of explosive-detecting canines, cross-contamination is an important concern. Hence, explosives intended for use with canine teams must be placed into secondary storage containers that are new, clean, and airtight. A variety of containers meet these requirements and include screw-top glass jars (e.g., mason jars). However, an additional need from the explosive-detecting canine community is secondary containers that can also be used as training aids whereby the volatiles emitted by explosives are emitted in a predictable and stable manner. Currently, a generally accepted method for the storage of explosives and controlled emission of explosive vapor for canine detection does not exist. Ideally, such containers should allow odor to escape from the training aid but block external contaminates such as particulates or other volatiles. One method in use places the explosive inside a permeable cotton bag when in use for training and then stores the cotton bag inside an impermeable nylon bag for long-term storage. This paper describes the testing of an odor permeable membrane device (OPMD) as a new way to store and deploy training aids. We measured the evaporation rate and flux of various liquid explosives and volatile compounds that have been identified in the headspace of actual explosives. OPMDs were used in addition to traditional storage containers to monitor the contamination and degradation of 14 explosives used as canine training aids. Explosives were stored individually using traditional storage bags or inside an OPMD at two locations, one of which actively used the training aids. Samples from each storage type at both locations were collected at 0, 3, 6, and 9 months and analyzed using Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR) Spectroscopy and Gas Chromatography–Mass Spectrometry (GC–MS) with Solid-Phase Microextraction (SPME). FTIR analyses showed no signs of degradation. GC–MS identified cross-contamination from ethylene glycol dinitrate (EGDN) and/or 2,3-dimethyl-2,3-dinitrobutane (DMNB) across almost all samples regardless of storage condition. The contamination was found to be higher among training aids that were stored in traditional ways and that were in active use by canine teams.



The Detection of Underwater Oil by Oil Detection Canines

by Paul Bunker, Stephanie R. Vaughan, Lauryn E. DeGreeff, Ed Owens, and Steven G. Tuttle


For instance, the headspace of West Texas Intermediate (WTI) crude oil and WTI in a TADD were similar, which indicated that changing the containment did not affect the VOCs readily available in the headspace. In contrast, the headspace of WTI in a TADD compared to that of WTI in a TADD immersed in water was significantly different. In this regard, most of the odor was lost when immersed in water, and the few peaks seen in the chromatogram were due to siloxanes associated with the SPME fiber. Therefore, the presence of water significantly affects the headspace of crude oil. However, the headspaces of WTI in a TADD immersed in water and in the underwater device were extremely similar, which indicated that water has the same effect on the headspace of crude oil regardless of the containment size and that the device is working properly to deliver the available odor.


Northeast Wisconsin technical college

Effectiveness of Canine Odor Detection Containment Aids in
Resisting Contamination from a Storage Environment

by Rhiannon LaFortune


In the field of odor detection, many tools exist to store target materials and deliver scent, but with such an abundance of choice comes a bombardment of misconceptions as to which option is best. Subjectivity fuels fallacies in the market, but as objectivity and research are beginning to enter the field, better practices for handling and storing training tools may become commonplace. Contamination of target odors remains a threat to the success of detection canines. In comparing two commonly used, commercially available containers, this
study addresses the ingress of contaminants into the widely used mason jar compared to the Training Aid Delivery Device (TADD). This study aimed to determine if the TADD would outperform the mason jars in preserving the target material within and investigate the influence of time. Contaminant levels were analyzed at three different time points to establish a relationship between time and quantity, but discovered levels remained too low to be conclusive. Regardless, the findings of this study suggest that the mason jar did not effectively resist contamination stemming from neighboring explosive compounds during storage. At the same time, the TADD showed an ability to withstand the pollution of the materials stored within. Environmentally sourced contamination consistent with explosives leached into the mason jars after only four weeks in a storage magazine that housed a range of explosives detection training materials. The results suggest that rudimentary devices, such as mason jars, may be an inferior method of containing training materials and could result in signature odors being tainted.


US Army CHemical Biological Center

Evaluation of the SciK9TM Training Aid Delivery Device TM for Containment of Powders


[Technical Report AD1143404]


The SciK9TM Training Aid Delivery Device (TADD)TM was invented by the U.S. Army Combat Capabilities Development Command Chemical Biological Center (Aberdeen Proving Ground, MD) to contain solid, powder, or liquid training substances. The TADDTM is designed to enable free gas/vapor exchange and simultaneously prevent escape of a training aid substance into the environment. This study demonstrates that the SciK9TM TADDTM wholly contains powdered substances in the form of fine particulates and does not allow release of any trace material into the surrounding environment. Experiments were designed to evaluate short and long term stationary and dynamic containment of substances with a dry or wet membrane. In addition, formation of condensation within the lid of the TADDTM was determined. Caffeine and benzylfentanyl were used as surrogates for hazardous powdered narcotics and exposed to various experimental conditions. After analysis by mass spectrometry, no traces of these substances were found on the outer surfaces of the TADDTM. The results demonstrate that SciK9TM TADDs(TM) can be used to safely train canines in the detection of powders such as narcotics after exposure to various experimental conditions. 


Chiron K9

Trials of Training Aid Delivery Device® for
Underwater Oil Detection Canine Training

Key Findings:

  • The various studies reported here show that TADDs® can be used to train ODCs without exposing the water source to contamination by the target oil sample.

  • Odor molecules, which a trained ODC can identify, pass through the TADD® membrane into water or air medium.

  • For effective utilization of the TADD®, in-field training, the ODC should be imprinted and trained on the device containing the target, underwater.


University of Pennsylvania

Discrimination of SARS-CoV-2 infected patient
samples by detection dogs: A proof of concept

TADDs were utilized to contain potentially infectious SARS-CoV-2 patient samples:

"After sample inactivation, all samples were stored at a minimum of -20˚C cold storage until aliquoting. Samples from adults or children were combined, but only NP-40-inactivated urine was mixed with NP-40-inactivated urine, heat-inactivated urine was only mixed with heat-inactivated urine and heat-inactivated saliva was only mixed with heat-inactivated saliva. Samples were aliquoted into 400 uL volumes into SciK9(TM) Training Aid Delivery Devices (TADD)(TM)."

TADDs(TM) were utilized during training in the Tactical Direction Canine Scent Wheel:

"Each wheel contained controls (e.g. SARS-CoV-2 negative samples treated with the same inactivation protocol as targets) as well as distractors (e.g. gloves, empty TADD(TM), garlic on filter paper, SharpieTM marker on filter paper, TADD(TM)  with coconut flavoring, paperclips, marinade on filter paper, empty cans etc), such that each port contained an odor."


German Armed Forces & University of Veterinary Medicine Hannover GERMANY

Scent dog identification of SARS-CoV-2 infections, similar across different body fluids

TADDs(TM) were used to contain infectious clinical samples of SARS-CoV-2 and the TADDTM membrane was subsequently tested via PCR swab to ensure viral containment. Supplementary Data Table 3 shows the data from the 68 TADDs(TM) that were tested and subsequently passed the viral containment tests.

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